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DNA Shared Between Two People Checklist

DNA Shared Between Two People Checklist

Whether you are looking up the percentage you share between a known relationship or have just got back your DNA results and want to know what the possible relationships are between you and your matches the checklist below will help you figure out the possibilities.

Identical Twins

100% DNA Shared

Parent/Child

50% DNA Shared

Full Siblings

50% DNA Shared (Approx)

Half Siblings

25% DNA Shared (Approx)

Grandparent/Grandchild

25% DNA Shared (Approx)

Aunt-Uncle/Nephew-Niece

25% DNA Shared (Approx)

Double First Cousins

25% DNA Shared (Approx)



Great Grandparent/Great Grandchild

12.5% DNA Shared (Approx)

First Cousins

12.5% DNA Shared (Approx)

Great Aunt-Uncle/Great Nephew-Niece

12.5% DNA Shared (Approx)

Half Uncle-Aunt/Half Nephew-Niece

12.5% DNA Shared (Approx)

First Cousins Once Removed

6.25% DNA Shared (Approx)

Half First Cousins

6.25% DNA Shared (Approx)

Great Great Aunt-Uncle/Great Great Nephew-Niece

6.25% DNA Shared (Approx)

Half Great Aunt-Uncle/Half Great Nephew-Niece

6.25% DNA Shared (Approx)

Double Second Cousins

6.25% DNA Shared (Approx)

Second Cousins

3.125% DNA Shared (Approx)

First Second Twice Removed

3.125% DNA Shared (Approx)

Half First Cousin Once Removed

3.125% DNA Shared (Approx)

Half Great Great Aunt-Uncle/Half Great Great Nephew-Niece

3.125% DNA Shared (Approx)



Second Cousins Once Removed

1.563% DNA Shared (Approx)

Half Second Cousins

1.563% DNA Shared (Approx)

First Cousins Three Times Removed

1.563% DNA Shared (Approx)

Half First Cousins Twice Removed

1.563% DNA Shared (Approx)

Third Cousins

0.781% DNA Shared (Approx)

Second Cousins Twice Removed

0.781% DNA Shared (Approx)

Third Cousins Once Removed

0.391% DNA Shared (Approx)

Fourth Cousins

0.195% DNA Shared (Approx)

Third Cousins Twice Removed

0.195% DNA Shared (Approx)

Fourth Cousins Once Removed

0.0977% DNA Shared (Approx)

Third Cousins Three Times Removed

0.0977% DNA Shared (Approx)

Fifth Cousins

0.0488% DNA Shared (Approx)

Fifth Cousins Once Removed

0.0244% DNA Shared (Approx)

Sixth Cousins

0.0244% DNA Shared (Approx)

Sixth Cousins Once Removed

0.0061% DNA Shared (Approx)

Seventh Cousins

0.00305% DNA Shared (Approx)

Seventh Cousins Once Removed

0.001525% DNA Shared (Approx)

Eighth Cousins

0.000763% DNA Shared (Approx)



What To Do Once You Have Your DNA Test Results.

What To Do Once You Have Your DNA Test Results.

So you’ve just received your chosen DNA Tests results. Now what? A lot of people don’t realise that you can do a lot more with the raw test results than what is shown on any of the sites that test DNA.

Your raw results come in the form of a file that can be easily uploaded to a number of other sites. To top it off almost all of these sites and tools are free!

promethease

1 – Promethease ($5)

“Promethease is a literature retrieval system that builds a personal DNA report based on connecting a file of DNA genotypes to the scientific findings cited in SNPedia.”

Promethease costs $5 and basically uses freely available data on SNPedia to generate a report outlining all of the health related information your DNA holds. This is particularly useful for anyone that has tested using AncestryDNA or FamilyTreeDNA and does not have any health results to go with their ancestral results. Something worth noting is that FamilyTreeDNA specifically removes some health related SNP’s so this won’t be of much use to people that have used this service. But for $5 it hardly breaks the bank if you’ve just forked out 20x that on the test in the first place.

Either way this is definitely worth it if you are interested in learning what your DNA means for your health. Don’t do this if you are a hypochondriac!

gedmatch

2 – Gedmatch (Free or $10 for Extras) 

Gedmatch allows you to upload your raw DNA results from: 23andMe, AncestryDNA, FamilyTreeDNA, WeGene and GENETIConcept, then once they have been processed you can match with anyone else from any site that has uploaded their results to Gedmatch too. This is a good way to get around having to buy kits on each site.

The site also contains tools you can use to analyse your DNA such as: Various admixture tools that can break down where parts of your DNA are likely to have originated, Eye colour predictions which look at various SNP’s thought to affect eye colour, Kit-Kit comparisons which allow you to compare two kits and see exactly what parts of your DNA you share with someone and a few more other cool tools. It’s free to use and runs off of donations as well as a newly implemented tier system which gives you access to more tools for a $10 Donation. 



3 –  23++ Chrome Extension and Ancestry Helper Chrome Extension. (Free) 

“23++ is an extension for the Google Chrome Browser that adds additional functionality to 23andMe and makes the site a little nicer to use.”

“The extension helps with analyzing and comparing your AncestryDNA test results. The automated scanner, accessible using the Full Scan and Resume Scan buttons added to your DNA Home Page, will go through your list of DNA matches and open each one to scan their pedigree charts.”

These tools help make their related sites easier to use and add features such as enhancing the way DNA matches look and the ability to download matches for future reference.

davepike

4 – Dave Pike’s DNA Analysis Tools (Free) 

Dave Pike is a professor at the Memorial University of Newfoundland and has developed a load of useful tools that can be used to gain further insight in to your DNA.

They are particularly useful if you have very close relatives that have also tested as you can do things like phase children’s DNA with parents to see exactly which alleles (One half of an SNP, one is inherited from each parent) were inherited from which parent or searching for Discordant SNP’s, these are SNP’s that differ from the parents, possibly meaning the SNP has mutated.

jameslick

5 –  James Lick’s mtDNA Haplogroup Analysis Tool (Free) 

This tool is useful if you’re interested in your direct maternal line. It can more accurately plot where on the mtDNA Human tree your maternal Haplogroup is found. For example my 23andMe mtDNA result came back as “k1a10” wheras James Lick’s tool narrowed it down to “k1a10a” not a massive difference in my case but it could have narrowed it much further by looking at genetic markers 23andMe’s algorithm doesn’t look at. The tool also tells you similar Haplogroups and which markers you are missing. This is still not a replacement for getting a dedicated mtDNA Test from FamilyTreeDNA as it only looks at around 19.7% of the entire mtDNA so a dedicated test would be much more accurate.

Uploading your results to all of the tools above will not only give you more information on your genome but you’ll also end up understanding the way DNA Tests work much more clearly.

An Easy Guide to Commercial Genealogical DNA Tests

An Easy Guide to Commercial Genealogical DNA Tests

DNA Tests have become a staple of Genealogy in recent years and as they are getting cheaper and cheaper a lot more amateur genealogists are becoming much more interested in unlocking the secrets kept within their DNA. The main question is which one to get.

DNA Tests can help in a number of ways including:

  • Verifying research – For example if you think someone is your great grandfather but aren’t 100% sure and you match with people who have him in their tree too you use this to confirm that he is related to you.
  • Surname Variants – Surnames are not always passed down exactly as they were originally so using Y-DNA to match with other people with the same and similar surnames can prove that surnames are related. For example in my tree I have the Pynn surname written as: Pynn, Pymm, Pin and Pinn.
  • Locations – You might end up matching with lots of people that all live in the same area. This could open up new avenues of research.
  • Ancestral Homeland – Some people like the fact that samples can be compared to “Ancient” samples. This can often show where some portion of your DNA likely originated. Most tests also give you a breakdown of this.
  • Discover Living Relatives – One of the most important features for people that take a DNA test is the fact that you are matched with people within the same database.
  • Confirm or Disprove Family Secrets – Take for example someone who does not know their grandfather but has been told he was in the army during the war and had a fling with the grandmother. This might be broken down by having living descendants of the real grandfather who might turn out to live right around the corner.





There are three main types of DNA Tests used within Family history.

  • Y-DNA, which is used to find out more about direct paternal lines.
  • mitochondrial DNA, is used for direct maternal lines.
  • Autosomal DNA is all the nuclear DNA in your cells that is not on a sex chromosome (X or Y chromosome). This is used in matching all lines.

The most popular of these test are the autosomal tests. These are usually the cheapest and offer the most information.


Autosome

Autosomal Tests

Autosomal DNA tests look at the numbered chromosomes. We have 22 (numbered 1-22) Pairs of Chromosomes and two sex chromosomes (X and Y). An autosomal test can be used to estimate relationships between two people, this is the reason that it is the most common type of genealogical test.


23andme banner

1 – 23andMe

Price: £125.

Method: Saliva Sample (About 1 cc).

Contacting others: Contact may be made after seeing your list of matches in DNA Relatives or Ancestry Finder; the matches must be willing to share genomes with you if you are to see what segments you share with your matches.

Number of People in the Database: 1,200,000.

Medical Data: Yes.

Online Community: Yes.

Extra Tools: Ancestry Composition, Ancestry Finder, Neanderthal Ancestry, Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry tool, Y and mtDNA haplogroups provided for people you are sharing with.


ancestrydna logo

2. Ancestry DNA

Price: £79.

Method: Saliva Sample (About 1/2 cc).

Contacting others: Contact can be made through Ancestry.com’s messaging system.

Number of People in the Database: 2,000,000.

Medical Data: Yes.

Online Community: Yes.

Extra Tools: Comparison of overlap of ancestral origins between matches and automatic identification of common ancestors, surnames and birth places between matches’ family trees.


ftdna family finder

3 – Family Tree DNA (Family Finder Test)

Price: £65.

Method: Cheek Swab.

Contacting others: Email Addresses of all matches are available.

Number of People in the Database: 250,000.

Medical Data: Yes, not as many as 23andme.

Online Community: Yes.


natgeo

4 – National Geographic Project Geno 2.0

Price: £127.

Method: Cheek Swab.

Contacting others: No, but stories about one’s Y patrilineal and matrilineal ancestry can be posted on the web site for others to view, so add your contact information to them.

Number of People in the Database: 230,000.

Medical Data: Yes, not as many as 23andme.

Online Community: Yes.

Extra Tools: There are approximately 75,000 Ancestry Informative Markers from about 450 populations around the world that are included on the test. About 10,000 of the Y chromosome SNPs included on the test have not previously been tested in large populations. Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestral percentages are provided.


ftdna-ytest

Y-DNA Tests

These tests are primarily used in Surname Studies. i.e Do two or more males with the “Pynn” surname share a common patriarchal ancestor? They also provide you with your Y-Haplogroup which is the branch on the human DNA tree your Y chromosome sits on.

Family Tree DNA

Family Tree DNA offers three types of Y-DNA test. Each of these tests for a different number of genetic markers on the Y Chromosome. The 37 Marker test will allow you to confirm close relationships and the 67/111 tests will let you narrow down matches even further. With Y-DNA it’s all about what you can afford. If you can afford the 111 STR test then do that one!

Price: 37 STRs $169, 67 STRs $268, 111 STRs $359.

Method: Cheek Swab.

Contacting Others: Public FTDNA Forums.

Number of People in the Database: 568,000+


ftdnammtDNA Tests

mtDNA Tests look at the mitochondrial DNA that is present in everyone. It is passed from mother to child so Males and Females can be tested for this however males will not pass this on to their children. Much like how the Y-DNA test looks at the fathers direct line, the mtDNA test looks at the mothers direct female line. This also gives the mtDNA Haplogroup which again shows where the mtDNA fits in to the human DNA Tree.

Family Tree DNA

Family Tree DNA offers an Entire mtDNA genome (HVR1, HVR2 + coding region = 16569 bases) test. This is the only one worth getting if you want to get in depth information about your mtDNA. It is by far the cheapest of it’s kind. 23andme and some other autosomal tests will tell you about your mtDNA but it will not be anywhere near as informative as an Family Tree DNA test.

Price: $199.

Method: Cheek Swab.

Contacting Others: Public FTDNA Forums.

Number of People in the Database: 200,000.

6 Reasons You Should Join or Start a One Name Study.

6 Reasons You Should Join or Start a One Name Study.

Guild of One Name Studies (GOONS)
Copyright one-name.org

If you’ve ever stumbled across an unusual name in your research and ended up whacking it in to Google then you’ve probably come across The Guild Of One Name Studies (Goons). If not, it’s a Website that offers a different outlook to the conventional Family Tree. Rather than a focus on a particular members own tree, a One Name Study is exactly what it sounds like. All members of a One Name Study contribute to a common goal which involves a particular surname, this goal could be very broad like: “All instances of the Surname Barber and it’s variations wordwide” which would for obvious reasons be a massive project.

While the Guild insists that all studies be global in scope, it is perfectly acceptable to start with a smaller area like a US state or British county and build out from there, like for example the surname Juden in West Sussex. The techniques you learn on a small scale can then be applied similarly as the geographic scope widens. Some Guild members may choose to be global but restrict the time period on which they initially work and then extend backward or forward from there. There are plenty of reasons to join or start a One-Name Study.

Reason 1: A massive community of like minded individuals all contributing to a common goal.

The nature of a One Name Study tends to attract people that are less likely to be selfish in their studies and share any information and knowledge they might have. This could be in the form of sources, local history or general tips and tricks they have learnt themselves. This might in turn break down brick walls in your own family tree, or give you insights in to collections or sources you might otherwise have missed.Two Head sharing knowledge graphic

Reason 2: Guild Marriage Challenges.

A Guild Marriage Challenge is a project in which members will visit local archives in specific registration districts and look up marriages. This helps with eliminating the need to spend as much money on Marriage Certificates. Put in to real terms, if you were to only manage to find two records from these challenges then you’ve already paid for your subscription.Marriage Record For Pierre Louis Oscar Cordier

Reason 3: Discounted DNA Tests.

The Guild also offers discounted DNA Tests for all of its members. These tests are the same ones found on Family Tree DNA which include: YDNA 37 Marker and the Family Finder Autosomal test. Both can offer different insights in to your ancient ancestry.DNA Strand

Reason 4: Breaking down Brick Walls.

With the enormous wealth of knowledge the members of the Guild have you are certain to find someone that is interested in helping you break down a brick wall in a particular area, the solution might come from local knowledge that only a select few members know about or a search tip that leads you to the breakthrough source.Breaking down a Brick Wall

Reason 5: Free Profile Page on the Guild website.

With a free profile page you can get noticed by new and existing members with the same surname interests. Here you can add everything you know about your chosen surname and outline the goals of your project.

One Name Study Profile Page
Copyright one-name.org

Reason 6: Get more in depth knowledge of a surname. 

If for only this reason alone you join The Guild it will be worth it as you’ll actually have some verified history about the surname you choose complete with stats and sources to back your claims up.Juden surname page