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How To Know Which GRO Index Is The Correct One

How To Know Which GRO Index Is The Correct One

This post relates to the Birth and Death Indexes in England & Wales. Often when searching the GRO Indexes or searching for people with particularly common surnames you might find yourself with a few, possibilities as to which is the correct certificate. Most people will guess and hope for the best, if it’s not one then they’ll buy another until they have the correct one. But there are actually a few tricks you can apply to figure out the correct one.

Firstly you’ll need to know how the GRO indexes were organised, once you know this you can apply a few techniques to figure out the record that is most likely to be the correct one.

  • The GRO indexes were compiled quarterly that is all the records that were registered in that quarter. This is why you will often see on popular sites “JAN-FEB-MAR” or “Q1”.
  • Each County was divided in to Registration Districts which were in turn subdivided in to Sub-Districts which again were divided in to Civil Parishes. Over the years these Sub-districts and districts did change every now and then.
  • The entries for each Sub-district are ordered by Date of Registration rather than by Date of Birth or Death.
  • Each Sub-district will usually start on the right-hand page which is odd numbered.
  • Up to Q4 1911 there were up to 10 entries on each page of the indexes, but after Q4 1911 there were 6 entries per page.

You might know from census’s or from other ancestors where you should be looking so for example take the Registration District of “Cheshire” in England, this is divided in to further Sub-districts including “Birkenhead”. This is as far as the GRO will detail which is where this technique comes in handy. In the Birkenhead Sub-district there are 3 Civil Parishes, so in this example I have three “John Smith’s” born in the “Birkenhead” registration district. All in Q4 (Oct-Nov-Dec) 1873. (Screenshots Below from and

While these three records look identical if you wanted to be sure on which one is your ancestor, you would expect to have to buy all three certificates to rule two out. But with a few simple steps you can actually find out which of the 3 districts these records relate to. The information on the three “John Smith’s” we have available to us is:

John Smith A

  • Volume Number: 8A
  • Page Number: 479
  • Line Number: 211

John Smith B –

  • Volume Number: 8A
  • Page Number: 451
  • Line Number: 212

John Smith C –

  • Volume Number: 8A
  • Page Number: 444
  • Line Number: 214

Step 1 – Extract all births for that quarter

The first step is to extract all of the births for that quarter. You can do this easily by going to FreeBMD and searching for just the registration district and the quarter. Then copy and paste the results in to a spreadsheet. You should then have a quick look through to get rid of any obvious errors such as duplicates or discrepancies. You can use the Page Map-District Index to get the page range of the particular district any outside of this range can be deleted, sort by page number and you should end up with something similar to the following screenshot.

Step 2 – Look up the Expected Page Range

In the same way as in step 1, find the expected page range using the Page Map-District Index and open up a new sheet in your spreadsheet. Then input the page numbers between the ranges for example, Birkenhead’s expected page range for Q4 1873 is “425-511” This should look something like the following screenshot:

Birkenhead page numbers


Step 3: Go back to the spreadsheet, and open up a new sheet in the same workbook. In the first column fill in the series of cells with the page numbers from 425-511

Step 4 – Use the formula to count how many entries are on each page

In Column B in your second sheet type in the function bar (The bar with the “fx” function symbol above the sheet) the following formula: =COUNTIF(Sheet1!E:E,A1) and pull it down to apply it to all of the rows with values. In this formula each part can be changed to suit your needs:

  • “Sheet1” this is the name of the original sheet in your spreadsheet.
  • E:E,A1 Means that it will count the values in column E that match the value in “A1” of the second sheet. i.e if you wanted to count from column B in a sheet named “birkenhead” by a value in B1 of the second sheet you would use: =COUNTIF(birkenhead!B:B,B1).

This should give you something similar to the following screenshot although you will probably see lots of numbers over 10, which need to be looked in to. You can then colour code based on the anomalies, these anomalies will be the last page of each district:

Step 5 – Look for breaks or differences in the Data

Looking for breaks or difference in the data will hopefully show you where the districts split and what page numbers relate to which Civil Parishes. Pages for this year should have up to 10 entries per page. However the data is almost never perfect. The most accurately written/transcribed districts will have data that will have all 10’s a few 9’s and some 0’s as page breaks. The Birkenhead district is not a particularly friendly one. It has loads of 10’s and 11’s which shouldn’t really be possible. You can go through these and check for duplicates missed, for example in page 440 I have “11” entries when really there should be 10. You can see below that there is a “Nelli Hardcastle” and a “Nellie HARDCASTLE”. This is obviously the same person so we can remove this. It’s also worth going through any with more than 10 entries individually using the GRO’s new search function and searching each name individually to make sure the page number is correct I found around 25 discrepancies this way in Birkenhead’s data.

Once you’ve sorted out all of the anomalous numbers you can figure out which parishes relate to which page numbers. You can download my spreadsheet here if it is needed as an example. In the Birkenhead spreadsheet of the eighty seven page numbers there are eighty two “10’s”, two “9’s”, two “4’s” and a “0”. We know that in this year each page would have had a max of 10 entries per page so as we know there are 3 parishes within the Birkenhead district we can deduce which ones are which. As a new page would be started after each parish we know that a 4 must mean that the page was only half filled in, indicating the end of a parish. From this we can deduce that the following page numbers relate to the following parishes.

  • 425-476 – Birkenhead
  • 477-495 – Tranmere
  • 497-511 – Wallasey

Going back to our John Smith’s we can now tell which one is from which parish. In this particular example there were only three parishes and three John Smiths. some districts have many more smaller parishes which will narrow down your search massively. We can also work out from the position in each district the page number is from which month of the quarter each John is likely to have been registered. We now know from the above data that our John Smith’s parishes are as follows:

John Smith A – Page 479 – Tranmere sub-district (Almost certainly Registered October as page 2/18 for Tranmere)

John Smith B – Page 451 – Birkenhead sub-district (Almost certainly Registered November as page 26/51 for Birkenhead)

John Smith C –  Page 444 – Birkenhead sub-district (Probably Late October/Early November as page 19/51 for Birkenhead)

Now if you were searching and you knew that your John Smith’s family all lived in Tranmere then you know which one to buy first!


Researching Family Trees Online On A Budget

Researching Family Trees Online On A Budget

Researching your family tree can become a very expensive hobby the further back you go and depending on the goals you set yourself you might find it starts to break the bank. Some people are only interested in a few branches of their tree and so can breeze through these without paying much in the way of purchasing certificates and subscriptions to online sources. Below are a few tips that can help you manage the money you spend on your research.

1.Save up all your sources and get them all within the same month

Popular sites like Ancestry and FindMyPast offer subscriptions to view original source scans, usually at a monthly rate. They also allow you to search and look at most transcriptions without a subscription, this means you can note down and save loads of source links over a few months, then view and confirm all of them at the same time and only pay 1 months worth of subscription.

2.Exhaust all popular avenues of research before ordering a certificate online. 

Sometimes you’ll find that the only way back, sideways or forward a generation is to purchase a vital record certificate (Birth/Marriage/Death). But before you do this try laying out all of your research on the particular line you’re looking at and check if you’ve missed any sources. For example, they aren’t always 100% accurate or complete but Baptism and Burial records play a massive part in figuring out relationships. Most British Baptism/Burial records online don’t tell you all of the information in the actual source material. In my research I was stuck on a brick wall regarding who the father of a couple of children (who’s siblings had a father listed) was, as all the online sources just left the father blank. However when looking at the original source material (Which cost me 1/3 of the price of a certificate, and I had many Ancestors in the same digital CD version) these children were all born “Baseborn”. Further research at an archive in to the Parish Vestry Records (A massively underappreciated collection!) allowed me to confirm that the father was not living with the mother. Some priests interpreted their work in a much stricter manner than others so he had decided not to put the fathers name on the baptism.

3. Understand the sources available for each ancestor

Research what source might actually be available for a particular ancestor before diving in and buying certificates. I like to create a spreadsheet for a particular surname, with names in the first column and sources in the preceding columns. I’ll then colour code them yellow if there is a possibility that the record exists, red if it doesn’t and green if I have found it. So for example someone born around 1810 cannot possibly be in the England & Wales, Civil Registration Birth Index, as they only started in 1837 so I’d mark this as red. This is a great way to memorise what sources might actually be available and will save time before you start looking in the wrong collections.

4. Check if there are local history groups in your research area.

Family History Groups are a great resource as its members have often got unique insights and know a lot about the local area and the sources it contains. They might also know of local museums or historic places that can hold items or documents related to the surnames you are interested in.

Family history groups also sometimes have deals with local archives that allow members access to collections or digital service at discounted prices.

5. Make use of forums and message boards.

Forums and message boards can be very powerful tools in your research as you can throw out all of your research so far and let people who love Genealogy fill in the blanks. Members are often willing to look up paid sources on sites such as Ancestry or FindMyPast but make sure that in return you help others where you can too and make sure to give them all the info you have already as if you constantly ask questions with no existing research you’ll often get shot down.

A Guide to Manchester & Lancashire Genealogical Research

A Guide to Manchester & Lancashire Genealogical Research

A lot of my personal research has been around the Manchester and Lancashire area. So I’ve used a lot of sources in my research, these “Extra” resources used along with the usual suspects (Ancestry, FamilySearch etc.) can yield some very colourful results.

Lancashire Parish Clerks

Lancashire Online Parish Clerks

“This site aims to extract and preserve the records from the various parishes and to provide online access to that data, FREE of charge, along with other data of value to family and local historians conducting research in the County of Lancashire.”

Lancashire Parish Clerks is great because it has fully searchable free data relating to the entire county. You can search by church, town or the whole of Lancashire.

Lancashire BMD

Lancashire BMD

The Register Offices in the county of Lancashire, England, hold the original records of births, marriages and deaths back to the start of civil registration in 1837.

The county’s Family History Societies are collaborating with the local Registration Services to make the indexes to these records freely searchable via the Internet.

Although the indexes are not yet complete for all years and districts, we hope that the database will eventually cover all Lancashire births, marriages and deaths from 1837.”

Like FreeBMD, Lancashire BMD has transcribed the Birth Marriage and Death records for Lancashire, however they have also transcribed many maiden names of mothers and list the “Age at Death” on most records up to 1837 as opposed to 1866 for FreeBMD.

Manchester City County Council Burial Records

Mancheser City Council

The Manchester City County Council Burial Records website is a fully searchable database of all the big cemeteries in Manchester. Its free to search which can also tell you the names of others buried in the same plot but if you want any more information a fee is required. Worth it if it breaks down a brick wall. The best way to use this resource is by combining it with Lancashire BMD to search for correlating deaths.

Manchester’s “Unfilmed” 1851 Census

Unfilmed 1851

“Family historians with ancestors in mid-19th century Manchester face a particular difficulty. Following transfer of the enumeration books to the Home Office in London and analysis of the contents, the area where the books were stored was flooded and the books were badly damaged. Some of the books were in such poor condition that it was not considered worth filming them. Others were filmed but much of the image appears blackened and the writing is not decipherable. Since the original books were considered too fragile to permit public access, the returns relating to over 200,000 people were effectively unavailable.”

This site has transcribed and made a searchable database of all of the names they could get out of the damaged 1851 census.

Manchester & Lancashire Family History Society

Manchester & Lancashire Family History Society

Manchester &  Lancashire Family History Society is a good resource to use as like most Family History Groups it has a member directory and local record sets. Some records are free to search but a small fee is payable if you want to access members directories. These members will often help with local research which is good for anyone not actually from the area. Their record sets also contain employee records from mills in the area. If you have working class ancestors from the Manchester and Lancashire area there’s a relatively large chance they could have been involved in the Mills.

Artus Family History


Whilst this is not specific to Manchester and Lancashire it does offer some very high resolution images of street maps of some of the cities in the area such as Manchester and Stockport. These maps stretch from the mid 1850s up until the 1940s.

6 Reasons Why a Fathers Name would be Missing from a Document

6 Reasons Why a Fathers Name would be Missing from a Document

Unfortunately sometimes you might come across a Birth, Christening, Adoption or any other vital record that has the fathers name omitted. Most of the time this will result in a massive brick wall that is nearly impossible to break down, so it’s important to find out why the fathers name was left off in the first place if you are to have any hope of finding out who he was. Some possible reasons are:

Reason 1: A fling

The mother might have had a fling with a man she just met which resulted in a child, the man might have been a traveler or just in the local area for a short while and might not have even known he had a child.

Reason 2: Sexual Assault

The child might have been conceived under much worse conditions, not every girl or family would have chosen to give up or abort the resulting child so would not have wanted the fathers name registered at birth.

Reason 3: A paternity suit

In the past it might have been the case that a father did not want to be on the birth certificate, due to circumstances such as being from a much more prominent or wealthy family. These families will have had a lot more power in courts of law and could have spent a lot of money protecting the families reputation.

The opposite could also be true. A female member of a wealthy family might have had a fling or relationship with a lower class man and they might have tried to cover it up with a quick marriage to another man or keeping the child a secret.

Reason 4: The child is illegitimate 

A child is labelled as ‘illegitimate’, ‘base born’ a ‘bastard’ or one of many more terms if they were born out of wedlock. This is in my experience the most common reason and is the easiest to break down too. This could be the case if the parents were in a relationship but were not married when the child was born. In the UK the parish records, i.e Birth, Christening, Marriage, Death, Burial records were recorded by the parish Vicar or Rector, in the eyes of the parents the child might have been legitimate but in the eyes of most Vicars only a child born to a married couple would be legitimate and depending on the Vicar the fathers name was almost never recorded.

Reason 5: The Father did not accept the child as his

A father might not have accepted a child as his own for a number of reasons:

  • It could be that the father genuinely did not believe that the child was his and that his wife or lover has not been faithful to him.
  • The father might have thought it was his but did not want the responsibility of a child and dismissed the notion of him being the father.
  • The child might have been born with a physical or psychological abnormality which the father did not want to be associated with.

Reason 6: The father was deceased

The registrar might have left the fathers name blank as to the child there would be no father in his life so there would be no point in listing his name on the certificate. It could also be the case that the father died soon after conception and the mother found another man and wants to keep it blank in the hopes that he will take on the child as his own.